Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neuro-developmental disorder present from birth and can be diagnosed in most cases before the age of 3 years. It is characterised by impairment in social interaction, communication and language difficulty and difficulty in imagination and abstract thinking. In most cases the child may display restricted and repetitive behaviour.

In addition to these, the child may also have additional difficulties in the area of Sensory Integration. The characteristics of ASD are grouped under three heading and they are also called ‘The Triad of Impairment.’ > Social Interaction: Many children with ASD may show deficit or impairment in social development i.e. may have impairment in developing appropriate social skills. Thus children could display problems in greeting others, empathizing and sympathizing with others. >

Communication and language: Some children may be able to talk in detail about their preferred topic but may draw blank when they need to ask for basic need such as going to toilet or when asked a specific question.

They may also display problems in simple turn taking, waiting or following other person’s thought process. > Rigidity in Thought and Behaviour: Many children with ASD may show ritualistic or obsessive behaviour, difficulty in imagination and weak central coherence (difficulty in observing the whole picture instead get stuck on one detail of the object). Thus the child with ASD could feel disturbed when some routines are suddenly changed.